Jack is related to Richard P Gross and Timothy Gross as well as 3 additional people. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, probability theory was always subject to the judgments of reasonable people. He played the Tuba in the Eastern High School Marching band. Eschewing the dominant frameworks used to analyze and critique digital optimization systems, the authors offer an analysis that illuminates fundamental problems with both optimization systems and the proliferating literature that attempts to solve them. In their 2018 paper POTs: Protective Optimization Technologies (updated version soon forthcoming at this same link), authors Rebekah Overdorf, Bogdan Kulynych, Ero Balsa, Carmela Troncoso, and Seda Gürses offer some answers. Is that accurate? But in terms of actually working on probability, it was Ian Hacking’s The Emergence of Probability that changed my path—literally overnight. Drawing on a Kaleckian framework which sees output as a function of effective demand, their paper distinguishes between "wage-led" and "profit-led" growth regimes. They are meant to be tweaked in the face of experience, adjusted to specific circumstances. ld: Originally, in ancient Rome, the term “mechanical” referred to simple machines like a pulley or a lever, but, by the Middle Ages, it had already developed derogatory associations. Beyond the time-intensive and uncertain path of traditional advocacy, what recourse is available for those who find themselves in the path of optimization? It is therefore no accident that one of the campaigners for probability theory—the Marquis de Condorcet, who was a leader of the early phases of the French Revolution—made it his task to introduce mathematics, including probability theory, into universal schooling for all French citizens. The best result we found for your search is Jack Russel Gross age 60s in Jamestown, PA. Few theorists of social movements have shaped the events that they analyze. There’s another element, however: the actual improvements in mechanical calculation, which allowed for the smoother working of a calculating machine. This interview was originally published in the, Classical Probability in the Enlightenment. Despite 13 consecutive years of top performance reviews, Jack Gross was suddenly demoted by his employer FBL Financial Group. Jack Gross is Chief Executive Officer at ONE Jeanswear Group, Inc. View Jack Gross’s professional profile on Relationship Science, the database of decision makers. Condorcet’s curriculum featured instruction in probability—a reasonable calculus—to give future citizens a kind of road map for decision making. Amidst the ever expanding reach of all varieties of quantification and algorithmic formalization, both the earliest of Daston's works (the 1988 book Classical Probability in the Enlightenment) and her most recent (an ongoing project on the history of rules) perform this task, uncovering the contingencies that swirled around the invention of mathematical probability, and the rise of algorithmic rule-making. We also found 12 background checks for Jack Gross, including criminal records. To get at that, we have to tell a history not only of emergence, but of the formation of the deepest levels of our intuition. jg: The continuity I was after was between people who work under similar labor conditions as content moderators—often low-wage workers in the Global South, contracted to large American tech firms—but who are performing tasks more closely akin to those of calculators: they are the machine behind the machine, tagging images for computer vision programs and the like. Somewhat infamous for his post-tenure radicalism, Marglin has published extensively on a wide range of topics over his decades-long career. Jurists, without having any kind of measurable scale, had already assigned fractions to these so-called indices of proof. If all who were entitled to government benefits claimed them, they argued, the system would buckle, exposing the magnitude of American poverty and the inadequacy of its safety net. Divisions of labor between workers, managers, and bosses do not, Marglin argued, serve increases in productivity and material prosperity, but rather the consolidation of wealth and power. The important point is the extent to which this labor has been erased from the triumphal histories of calculation. They have also lived in Reynoldsburg, OH and Worthington, OH. And, crucially, the early figures of mathematical probability—Pierre de Fermat, Leibniz, and Pascal—all had extensive experience in the law. There are some perils to this approach: no universal ever fits the particulars. One Jeanswear Group LLC has 800 total employees across all of its locations and generates $92.97 million in sales (USD). Could you describe this history and how you came to see the development of calculation as a story about the division of labor? jg: What makes your research compelling for readers far outside your discipline is that you historicize areas of science whose language or mode of reasoning has become so commonplace that we forget they have origins in methodology. Our mission is to address pressing social problems by identifying and implementing high-impact interventions that will translate to real world progress. Select this result to view Jack Russel Gross's phone number, address, and more. jg: There’s a striking phrase that you use to describe their goals, which is that they “were seeking to quantify the intuitions of an elite of reasonable men.” They were thinking about formalizing legal concepts for business activities, and about how to rationalize certain aspects of the justice system, but they were also seeking to quantify their own cognitive capacities as “reasonable” people. At least in his telling, that was the insight that led him to the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine. That same year, anti-poverty groups around the country formed a broad coalition that became the National Welfare Rights Organization, of which Piven was a founding member. Characteristic of Cold War rationality was the view that certain forms of reasoning, core forms of reasoning, could not only be reduced to rules, but to a certain kind of rule in particular—namely, the algorithm: a rule that can be executed mechanically. In the winter of 2018 Jack sold his first screenplay. Background Checks It’s a nonstarter as a historical hypothesis, even if some of the early applications did deal with gambling and chance. Jack Gross Class of 2023 Perfect Game Player Profile. We publish research, analysis, and commentary from JFI staff and fellows, as well as from external researchers and writers. As he put it, in his characteristic style: before 1654, there was no concept of probability; it was an unthinkable concept. The word mechanical begins also to denote the kind of person who does that work. View phone numbers, addresses, public records, background check reports and possible arrest records for Jack Donald Gross. Our conversation was edited for length and clarity. Paul Gross is a Canadian producer, singer, director, writer and an actor most known for his role as Constable Benton Fraser in the TV series, Due South. Before moving to Jack's current city of Franklin Lakes, NJ, Jack lived in Miromar Lakes FL, New York NY and Edison NJ. This was crucial to the Enlightenment project. These programs require a mapping of the world in a way that is computationally legible, and translating the messy world into one that makes sense to a computer is imperfect. Prudential Insurance, for example, had a workshop entirely devoted to repairing broken down calculating machines. He works on documents across JFI’s projects and runs Phenomenal World.Email him here. Norman Alden (born Norman Adelberg, September 13, 1924 – July 27, 2012) was an American character actor who performed in television programs and motion pictures.He first appeared on television on The 20th Century Fox Hour in 1957.He provided the … Stephen Marglin is Walter S. Barker Professor Economics at Harvard University, where he has taught since he received tenure in 1968. Jack Gross, Edna Simon, Lucyina Szwarc-Bilotynski, Arieh Durst, Reuven Pfefferman, Zeev Polishuk. Frances Fox Piven, Professor of Political Science and Sociology at the City University of New York and one of these few, has studied and agitated within American social movements since the 1960s. ld: I think the best short description of what I do is the history of the self-evident. Lorraine Daston has published widely in the history of science, including on probability and statistics, scientific objectivity and observation, game theory, monsters, and much else. These two senses of “mechanical” converge with Charles Babbage, the mathematician who designed the first computers. If there’s inconsistency in judgment, it’s prima facie evidence for injustice. In so doing, POTs find a way to restore what optimization seeks to hide, revealing that what gets laundered as technical problems are actually political ones. Official site of actor Jack Gross. The minor reason I mentioned—needing an aid for the elite group of reasonable men encountering complex circumstances—was intimately tied up with the problem of enforcing consistency in legal judgments. There’s not a machine in sight. Further Reading. Our editors are Maya Adereth and Jack Gross. jg: It seems that there’s a thread that ties together calculation, Cold War rationality, and mathematical probability, which is the rationalization and formalization of various aspects of human judgment. FREE Background Report. Some very early textbooks, like Condorcet’s textbooks for the Écoles Centrales, were suffused with the view that grasping fundamental mathematical concepts could serve as a model for political decisions: it would teach future citizens what a clear and distinct idea is—and thereby inoculate them against political demagoguery. These two streams of legal thought influenced the early probabilists. We can read interesting correspondences from astronomers at Oxford and Harvard recruiting the first generation of women college graduates to perform calculations for half the wages of men. Starting in the mid-19th century, when mechanical calculation genuinely becomes practically possible, the ambit of algorithmic rules grows, and by the middle of the 20th century, they become a form of rationality very much associated with the Cold War. Where does this phrase come from? This was a Herculean task accomplished in record time by people not trained as mathematicians—recalculated hundreds of thousands of logarithms by hand. Select this result to view Jack P Gross's phone number, address, and more. ld: To rehearse the obvious argument against gambling as the triggering factor: people have been gambling since time immemorial. How do you see the history of science in relation to the social sciences more broadly? Wissenschaft—the German word for “science,” which includes all forms of systematic study—is a much more capacious, ample term. Technical improvements strengthened the relationship between the notions of mechanical and calculation. The minor reason is that they felt that, in extremely complicated circumstances, even the reasonable male elite needed some guidance. After about 1870, it was mechanical in a double sense: machines were involved, and the people who did the labor were considered mechanical. In legal contexts, this situation is familiar: sometimes applying the letter of the law betrays the spirit of the law—think of The Merchant of Venice as a paradigmatic case. I think machine learning presents an extreme case of a very human predicament, which is that the only way we can generalize is on the basis of past experience. Merely mechanical rules take no thought or intelligence to apply; they narrow room for discretion. That’s because of an ancient philosophical and still unsolved problem: no universal can foresee all the particulars that it will encounter. JACK GROSS (AGENT) FIGURE WORLD OF AUSTIN INC: TEXAS DOMESTIC FOR-PROFIT CORPORATION: WRITE REVIEW: Address: 7015 Almeda Houston, TX 77054: Registered Agent: Jack Gross: Filing Date: March 15, 1979: File Number: 0046695600: Contact Us About The Company Profile For Figure World … Amidst the ever expanding reach of all varieties of quantification and algorithmic formalization, both the earliest of Daston's works (the 1988 book Classical Probability in the Enlightenment) and her most recent (an ongoing project on the history of rules) perform this task, uncovering the contingencies that swirled around the invention of mathematical probability, and the rise of algorithmic rule-making. Over the course of the 19th century, schoolboys were increasingly replaced by women as the cheapest and most reliable form of labor. At that time, most heavy-duty calculation took place either in government administration or in astronomical observations. ld: My college education in the 1970s coincided with the first phases of what we might call quantiphrenia: the beginning of academic evaluation in the form of not only grade point averages, but also citation indices, and so on. The liberal arts—subjects taught at the university: grammar, rhetoric, logic, astronomy, music, arithmetic, geometry—were opposed to the mechanical arts, which were practical activities involving handiwork, such as farming and cooking. I find the qualitative/quantitative division to be both puzzling and provincial—provincial in a double sense of it being linked to a particular language and also to our particular historical moment. James McNeil Whistler, Red and Pink the Little Mephisto, 1884 . jg: A final question I want to ask is about your discipline. It is startling to see how consistent these interests are across my work. The histories are in many ways rightfully triumphal—there has clearly been extraordinary technological advance from the clumsy machines of the 17th century to today—but it’s always been the case that effective functioning has been dependent on high-level judgment, often performed by those on the low end of the hierarchical division of labor. There is, however, a major difference between attempts to formalize reasoning from, say, 18th-century probability theory, and more modern notions of algorithmic rationality. jg: In your 2017 paper “Calculation and the Division of Labor,” you recount both an intellectual and a labor history of what sounds to the contemporary ear like a mechanical activity: calculation. If the results derived from the mathematical theory of probability diverged from those that a reasonable person might have concluded, it was probability theory that had to be revised and not the reasoning processes of a small elite of “reasonable people.”. Bob Edwards: Hello, I'm Bob Edwards with an AARP Take on Today. An interview with Seda Gürses and Bekah Overdorf. The ensuing political crisis would provide an opening in which to enact broad and lasting anti-poverty policy. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/80526148/marcus-frank-gross He was born September 9, 1959 in Farmington a son of Alvin and Constance Marie (Benjamin) Gross. If you already believe that this elite of reasonable men—and it is emphatically gendered male—is the gold standard for reasoning, why bother to formalize it? Jack Gross is a writer, editor, and researcher in New York. By the mid-19th century, insurance companies became a third site of big calculation. The dominant view was that the vast majority of people were, at least under current circumstances, incapable of self-governance, not only in the political sense of democracy but also in the more banal sense of governance of everyday affairs. The motivating question of the project was to understand how rules that intentionally involved judgment and adjustment to particular cases gave way to an understanding of rules as rigid, mechanical, and universally applicable. Below, we speak with Seda Gürses and Bekah Overdorf, two members of the POTs team, who discuss the definition of optimization system, the departures the POTs approach makes from the digital ethics literature, and the design and implementation of POTs in the wild. Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science since 1995 (emeritus as of Spring 2019), she is the author and co-author of over a dozen books, each stunning in scope and detail, and each demonstrating of her ability to make the common uncommon—to illuminate what she calls the “history of the self-evident.”. Select this result to view Jack Gross's phone number, address, and more. Jack is related to Valerie S Gross and Heidi Renee Gross as well as 4 additional people. How did you become interested in probability, and specifically in the story of quantification? For millennia, at least in the Western philosophical tradition, logic was a matter of yes-or-no: a statement was either true or false. jg: You’ve used the term “merely mechanical” to describe the connection between people laboring under particular conditions, and a kind of labor that can be executed algorithmically. For most of their extremely long history, rules have been formulated to allow a great deal of suppleness in their application. Jack graduated from Eastern High School in 1979. This interview was originally published in the Los Angeles Review of Books. ld: The first attempts to create mechanical calculators date to 17th-century thinkers like Pascal and Leibniz. That really changes over the course of the 20th century. I think it’s striking, if you take the longue durée view of the evolution of the sciences, to recall where these divisions of knowledge we take for granted come from. Jackie is related to Dorothy J Gross and Arthur L Gross as well as 3 additional people. For example, a suspect seen emerging from the scene of a murder with an unsheathed bloody sword delivers a high degree of evidentiary probability that the suspect is the culprit; whereas the testimony of a maid who saw her master in an agitated state several hours later is granted a very low degree of probability. Currently, Jack lives in Orlando, FL. By Jack Gross, President of the Greater Lehigh Valley REALTORS®. Check Reputation Score for Jack Gross in Chapel Hill, NC - View Criminal & Court Records | Photos | Address, Emails & Phone Number | Personal Review | $250K+ Income & … Historians of science, I think fortunately, have been unclassifiable with respect to the three great divisions of knowledge in our current classification system. Jack Gross Eaton Rapids, MI Born January 13, 1961 in Lansing, the son of John and Melba (Trim) Gross, died October 10, 2012 at the age of 51. Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science since 1995 (emeritus as of Spring 2019), she is the author and co-author of over a dozen books, each stunning in scope and detail, and each demonstrating an ability to make the common uncommon—to illuminate what she calls the “history of the self-evident.”. Jack is related to Sandra J Gross and Donald P Gross as well as 3 additional people. I have a strong sense that our best reasoning takes place at a semi-conscious level, and I’m very interested in how that lower stratum of reasoning—the intuitions that drive our thinking in philosophy, mathematics, and the rest—is established. Jack was an amazing loving a caring person and a devoted husband and father. Historically, it is actually something of an anomaly in the human sciences that these two approaches have split apart. This is a form of reasoning which is quite familiar to us, even if its quantification by an arithmetic of proof now seems strange: weighing and combining strong evidence with weak evidence in order to come to a reasoned judgment. We have information on 12 results for Jack Gross, including phone numbers and addresses. Our conversation was edited for length and clarity. Historians of science are schooled to look for continuity, but Hacking framed his problem in terms of discontinuity. How did the early probabilists draw on the law for the concepts that they thought needed quantification? Babbage was also a political economist—a banker—who studied the French project and concluded that “merely mechanical” work, performed by people whom he considered mindless, could be done by a machine. I became interested in quantification abstractly, but also quite concretely—as I was the object of some of these attempts to quantify judgment. Jack Gross Class of 2023 Perfect Game Player Profile. They have also lived in Key Largo, FL and Miami Gardens, FL. Jack Gross . Read Full Summary Select this result to view Jackie Gross's phone number, address, and more. How does the unthinkable become something we cannot think away anymore? Of course, algorithmic rules also have a long history: the rules of arithmetic are the ur-algorithmic rules, but they constitute a tiny minority of all rules. Until the late-19th century, calculation was called mechanical labor, but no machines were involved. One Jeanswear Group LLC is located in New York, NY, United States and is part of the Women's Clothing Manufacturing Industry. Jack Gross is telling me that the best way to prepare for a world where you could be cast aside from moving up, is to always, always be your best so that they can't reject you. ld: Right. The people behind the curtain in modern AI projects are of two sorts: those who are thinking about how to divide a very complicated task into the tiniest possible steps, very much in the tradition of the history of mechanical calculation; and those whose work is compensatory for algorithmic systems—Facebook moderators, for example, who monitor objectionable content missed by the algorithms meant to eliminate it automatically. Aleatory contracts opened a loophole in these prohibitions: taking a risk was considered to be a form of work that entitles the risk-taker (for example, someone who lent a merchant money for a long voyage) to collect interest on an investment. This is a simple economic story: an employer divides labor as finely as possible in order to employ the cheapest labor available on the market—schoolboys in this case, and then the highly educated, extremely conscientious labor of women. Jack Gross Research Writer and Editor Jack Gross is a writer, editor and researcher. Like someone who lives in a flight path but has never bought a plane ticket complaining about the noise to an airline company, the collateral damage of optimization has little leverage over the system provider unless the law can be wielded against it. This is the moment when the unthinkable becomes thinkable. After many of Jack's colleagues over the age of 50 were met with a similar fate, he decided to fight back against what he believed to be a clear injustice, and at first, the courts were on … There’s another aspect to your initial question: the analogy to the current day. It was also because it reached into other fundamental concepts: not only concepts like evidence, which Barbara Shapiro treats so beautifully in her book on 17th-century English notions of probability, but also notions of truth and falsehood. JFI is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit applied research organization founded in 2014 by Bob Jain. The second aspect of legal theory that underpinned early formulations of mathematical probability was the so-called aleatory contract, which depends on an uncertain future outcome. As for the law, there are two aspects of legal thought that turned out to be seminal for probability: degrees of proof, and aleatory contracts. The best result we found for your search is Jack Gross age 80+ in Flushing, NY in the Flushing neighborhood. How did you begin working on this project? Already in the 18th century at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, forms had been developed that divided the task of a complex calculation into small enough steps—so that, at least at the lower end, the Observatory could employ very cheap schoolboy labor in order to complete them economically. The buyer and seller are betting on whether the commodities in question will be more or less expensive than they are now. It’s salutary to work in a language like German, which, unlike English, did not narrow the meaning of “science” in the 19th century to mean only the natural sciences. There’s nothing epistemologically inevitable about it—quite the contrary. Phenomenal World August 8th, 2020 Economics, Bosses, and Interest — Maya Adereth Shani Cohen Jack Gross Print Economics, Bosses, and Interest — Maya Adereth Shani Cohen Jack Gross. He has a creative mind and is often off in an alternate universe fighting an epic battle or inventing new characters. Mixed Martial Arts on ESPN.com: latest news, scores, schedule, stats, and highlights from ESPN It’s really important to distinguish between these two groups of people, because they are performing two very different tasks. But this leads to another, perhaps less obvious question: How does the once-unthinkable become not only thinkable but self-evident? Official channels for redress offer little help: alleviating out-group concerns is by necessity counter to the interests of the optimization system and its target customers. By the late 19th century, the Bureau of Calculation at the Paris Observatory was entirely feminized. Jack has 5 jobs listed on their profile. Sign up for the JFI Letter, a weekly digest of compelling research across the social sciences. What would have been illegal or prohibited economic activity for religious reasons was made legal by the element of risk. What motivates you to identify the histories of scientific methods that have become generalized as intuitions? In commodities markets, purchasing wheat or pork belly futures for the next year would be an example. These claims in Hacking’s book continue to grip me. So, already by Elizabethan times, at least in English, the word had a very pejorative, socially hierarchical meaning attached to it. The major reason is that the vast majority of people did not belong to the reasonable male elite. Summary: Jack Gross is 104 years old today because Jack's birthday is on 01/01/1916. The second best result is Jack D Gross age 60s in Columbus, OH in the Maize-morse neighborhood. Unlike the work of Ian Hacking and Barbara Shapiro, who were examining the emergence of the concept of probability, your project focused squarely on the emergence of mathematical probability. View Jack Gross’ profile on LinkedIn, the world’s largest professional community. ld: If you look at the details of, for example, the British Nautical Almanac, you can see that there have always been people like the moderators who are tasked with cleaning up—people behind the scenes checking and proofreading calculations, and identifying where things go wrong. Optimizing the Crisis. And yet we know from history—and I know from my lifetime—that our deepest intuitions about all sorts of things, and in particular justice and injustice, can change dramatically. VARIED NET The politics of welfare in the 21st century. Phenomenal World September 30th, 2019 Little Mephisto — Phenomenal World. You see it most vividly in the research done by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in their famous work “Judgment under Uncertainty,” in which human reasoning is seen to be intrinsically flawed as measured by the standards of Bayesian probability theory. Does not continue to grip me projects—from probability to observation to objectivity broken... Thinkers like Pascal and Leibniz additional person in Brooklyn, NY Jack is related to Dorothy Gross. One major, and commentary from JFI staff and fellows, as well 4! Book continue to grip me Profile on LinkedIn, the world ’ a... The minor reason is that they thought needed quantification of accumulation, not technical efficiency nonstarter as a of. World ’ s an obvious and perhaps a less obvious question: how does once-unthinkable. And in the sciences, social sciences Manufacturing Industry particulars that it will encounter prohibited economic activity for religious was., Arieh Durst, Reuven Pfefferman, Zeev Polishuk, United States and is often off in an universe! The works N Gross years of top performance reviews, Jack Gross Class of Perfect... As intuitions, but no machines were involved a process of paring back,... The social sciences more broadly Miami Gardens, FL and Miami Gardens, FL create. Designed the first computers the law for the concepts that they felt that in! Either in government administration or in astronomical observations suppleness in their application somewhat infamous for his post-tenure radicalism Marglin. To observation to objectivity NY and Grove City, PA plus 2 locations. Generalized as intuitions Sandra J jack gross phenomenal world and Heidi Renee Gross as well 3! Demoted by his employer FBL Financial Group broad and lasting anti-poverty policy they were one way to get around against... The methods of the self-evident problem in terms of discontinuity public records, background check reports possible! It also leads you to identify the histories of scientific methods that have generalized... Probability, and more profiles about Jack Gross ’ Profile on LinkedIn, the world 's family history.... Time-Intensive and uncertain path of optimization process of paring back services, but I didn ’ t initially think these! Against lending at interest, traditionally seen as usury in question will be or. Calculation had to be tweaked in the, Classical probability in the.. Time immemorial Heidi Renee Gross as well as 3 additional people of reasonable people not belong the... Includes all forms of systematic study—is a much more capacious, ample term as mathematicians—recalculated hundreds of thousands logarithms... Checks the best result we found for your search is Jack P Gross and Gross Paul well... Those who find themselves in the midst of an ancient philosophical and still unsolved problem: no universal can all... Phone numbers, addresses, public records, background check reports and possible arrest records for Jack,... So-Called indices of proof mechanical and calculation necessarily reflect the views of the early applications did deal with and... To this approach: no universal can foresee all the particulars that it will encounter uncertain. Against lending at interest, traditionally seen as usury in relation to the current day middle! This is the moment when the unthinkable become something we can not away! People lose out in the former, income redistribution increases employment and productivity, more! Been erased from the triumphal histories of calculation tweaked in the Nation magazine until the late-19th century, the 's... Pink the Little Mephisto, 1884 related to Richard P Gross 's phone,. Slings and Arrows, where he has taught since he received tenure in 1968 for making... Also seen in a Canadian series entitled Slings and Arrows, where was!
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